Leaves simple and alternate

1. Tendrils
A Arising from axil of leaf, glands Passifloraceae
B Arising at 90° from petiole Cucurbitaceae
C Venation parallel, often spiny, herbaceous Smilacaceae
D Tendril-like aborted branches: carefully look at the origin of the tendrils Convolvulaceae
2. No tendrils
A Serrate leaves
  Secondary veins often leading to teeth (see drawing) Dilleniaceae
B Palmately veined
(a) Petiole pulvinate at base and apex
(i) Wiry pulvinate petiole Menispermaceae
(ii) Petiole just swollen (some can have entire leaves) Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae)
(b) Petiole swollen without being pulvinate Dioscoreaceae
(c) Lateral main veins following the base of the margin (see drawing), strong medicinal smell Aristolochiaceae
C Obscure venation / succulent / coriaceous (leathery) leaves
(a) Adventitious roots
  (i) Axis and petiole light grey, leaves succulent Markea sp. (Solanaceae)
  (ii) Leaves coriaceous, apex of the stem usually detaches from the trunk and hanging Marcgraviaceae
(b) No Adventitious roots. Spine like scars or small spines, twigs green and short petioles Polygalaceae
D Petiole swollen / thickened / relatively long
(a) Pulvinate at base and apex Menispermaceae
(b) Petiole long and thickened all along, prehensile, usually very supple Convolvulaceae
E Spines
(a) Spines scattered along the axis
  (i) Palmate venation Smilacaceae
  (ii) Pinnate venation Solanaceae
(b) Spines by two spine-like scars always near petiole Polygalaceae
F Adventitious roots: plant climbing appressed to the trunk
(a) Leathery leaves, plant often ornamental, many aromatic Araceae
(b) Parrallel venation
  (i) Leaves pinnate Desmoncus sp. (Arecaceae (Palmae))
  (ii) Leaves entire or lobed Cyclantaceae
(c) Adventitious roots in a first stage than plant scandent or hanging Marcgraviaceae
Ochrea or ring-like stipular scar Polygonaceae
Nodes swollen, peppery odor Piperaceae
Dense hirsute hair, even on twigs, dark spots in leaves Dichapetalaceae